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Terminology, Jargon, Abbreviations and Acronyms

The new transport paradigm is not yet as full of  terminology and acronyms as other more established subject areas. It is however catching up quickly for such a young topic. There are some agreed definitions, some confused terminology and a set of organisations and individuals producing new ones. We have have given our description of the terms below.

Term

Description

 CAV Connected and Autonomous Vehicle
Is a vehicle that has inbuilt communication capabilities, allowing it to ‘talk to’ other vehicles, across the intranet and to traffic infrastructure, such as traffic lights.The term CAV is used by the UK Department for Transport.
 HAV Highly Automated Vehicle
Is a vehicle that is capable of undertaking the driving of the car in some specific circumstances, but which requires a driver to be present.As with CAV the term HAV is used by the UK DfT.
High
Automation
Similar to HAV, describes a vehicle in which a driver needs to be available, and obvious the vehicle has to have suitable controls. The driver will be required to take control in some circumstances, but the vehicle is capable of driving itself in other situations, perhaps in urban areas or on a motorway/highway.

Can be seen as equivalent to SAE J3016 Level 3 and 4.

Can be seen as equivalent to the US Department of Transport, National Highways Traffic Safety Administration Level 3.

This term is used by the UK Department for Transport, for example in a paper called “Pathways to Driverless Cars“.

Full
Automation
Similar to CAV. Describes a vehicle which does not require a human driver and is capable of driving itself in all normal circumstances. May or may not have controls for a human driver.

Can be seen as equivalent to SAE J3016 Level 5.

Can be seen as equivalent to the US Department of Transport, National Highways Traffic Safety Administration Level 4.

This term is used by the UK Department for Transport, for example in a paper called “Pathways to Driverless Cars“.

SAE J3016
Version 201609
The international standards organisation, SAE, has a sub-committee called the “On-Road Automated Driving Committee”. It has produced a taxonomy for vehicle driving automation systems which is widely used. It imagines 3 entities, a human driver, an automated driving system and the vehicle itself. The structure of the taxonomy is “who does what and when?”.

It describes the act of driving as a “dynamic driving task” (DDT) and assumes that “on-road” refers to public highways where the vehicle may encounter human drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and so on.

The SAE is populated with engineers and scientists, so whereas it would be common to have six levels and number them 1 to 6, the SAE numbered the six levels 0 to 5.

Level 0: No Automation
The full-time performance by the human driver of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even when enhanced by warning or intervention systems.

Level 1: Driver Assistance
The driving mode-specific execution by a driver assistance system of either steering or acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving environment and with the expectation that the human driver performs all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task.

Level 2: Partial Automation
The driving mode-specific execution by one or more driver assistance systems of both steering and acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving environment and with the expectation that the human driver performs all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task.

Level 3: Conditional Automation
The driving mode-specific performance by an Automated Driving System of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene.

Level 4: High Automation
The driving mode-specific performance by an Automated Driving System of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene.

Level 5: Full Automation
The full-time performance by an Automated Driving System of all aspects of the dynamic driving task under all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver.

 

NHTSA
Classification
The US department NHTSA has a classification for automated vehicles. They do however largely defer to the SAE definitions.

Level 0
The human driver is in complete control of all functions of the car.

Level 1
A single vehicle function is automated.

Level 2
More than one function is automated at the same time (e.g., steering and acceleration), but the driver must remain constantly attentive.

Level 3
The driving functions are sufficiently automated that the driver can safely engage in other activities.

Level 4
The car can drive itself without a human driver.

OEDR Object and Event Detection and Response
Is a term describing the ability of an automated vehicle to do what it says, detect issues and respond.Term used by the US-DoT
ODD Operational Design Domain
Is the term used for a specific driving scenario or environment for which a manufacturer is targeting automation.Term used by the US-DoT
V2V Vehicle to Vehicle Communications
Describes the ability of one vehicle to communicate with another using a specific wireless technology.
V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications
Describes the ability of a vehicle to communicate with urban and highway infrastructure, such as traffic lights, pedestrian crossings and overhead gantries using a specific wireless technology. Also the reverse, I2V.
Vienna Convention A number of countries have signed up to the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. It requires that moving vehicles have a driver who can, at all times, control the vehicle.

This rather mitigates against autonomous vehicles, especially designs which do not have human-centric controls.

The USA, UK, China and Japan did not sign, or at least did not ratify, the convention and are thus in a stronger position to develop & trial autonomous vehicles.

PATS Personal Automated Transport System or Service
A high level service that provides a combination of applications, infrastructure, automated vehicles, administration, booking, billing and maintenance systems.
Intermodal Center A transportation facility providing an interface between more than one mode of transportation, for example rail, coach and autonomous vehicle service.
MaaS Mobility as a Service
Transport’s equivalent to what SaaS (Software as a Service) and PaaS (Platform as a Service) are to the IT industry. The concept is similar to PATS, encompassing a end-to-end mobility service possibly provided as a PAYG offering.

PATS –